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river otters

All otters are expert hunters that eat fish, crustaceans, and other critters. River otters are wary and their hearing and sense of smell are well developed.

They may be legally be trapped mid-November through March.

River otter populations declined significantly throughout the late 1800s due to over-harvesting and water pollution.

This playful behavior is not only social but teaches otters several survival skills. Otter abodes feature numerous tunnels—one of which usually allows them to come and go from the water. They hunt either alone or in pairs.

Most otter species are social, living in groups consisting of a mother and her various generations of pups. Lethal control can never be justified without a serious effort to first prevent problems from recurring. River otters avoid polluted waterways, but will seek out a concentrated food source upstream in urban areas. They have dense short underfur, which is covered by darker, coarse hairs that help to repel water. As they dive underwater, they close their ears and nostrils to keep water out. The limit is 5 otter per trapper and a CITES pelt permit must be purchased ($5) within 48 hours of capture. Otter families of mother and children can be seen enjoying such fun, which also teaches survival skills. The males will often form bachelor groups, and separate from their mothers. In late fall, the pups leave to establish their own territories.

The legs of a river otter are short with five webbed toes on each foot. Male hippos even use their tail to distribute their excrement as a kind of muck-spreader! Understanding river otter range, or the area that river otters inhabit, is an important tool to help us with land use planning, restoration decisions, and toxic spill planning and response. Otters make trails along the edges of lakes, streams, and other waterways. 1) have long, streamlined bodies, short legs, webbed toes, and long, tapered tails, all adaptations for their mostly aquatic lives. River otters are legally protected by the Illinois Wildlife Code as Furbearers. Questions about your donation?

Suite 410 In 1989, river otters were classified as an endangered species in the state. Close potential entries under porches, houses, sheds, and other structures with quarter-inch mesh welded-wire (hardware cloth), boards, or other sturdy material. Look for tracks in soft mud, damp sand or fresh snow. Females are usually accompanied by their young. Their habitats can be both marine and freshwater. Males can travel 150 miles within a particular watershed and its tributaries in a year. River otters are underwater acrobats that are known for their social and playful behavior and have been observed sliding down slippery slopes for fun. Many otters frequent the same sites, leaving droppings as a way of communicating with each other. Otters normally occupy a den site for only two or three consecutive nights. River otters can measure up to 1.4 metres in length from nose to tail, and weigh up to almost nine kilograms. They are known to use abandoned animal burrows as routes under fences. River otters also eat freshwater mussels, crabs, crayfish, amphibians, large aquatic beetles, birds (primarily injured or molting ducks and geese), bird eggs, fish eggs, and small mammals (muskrats, mice, young beavers). Mammals of the Pacific Northwest: A Pictorial Introduction They may also be trapped by an experienced nuisance wildlife control operator. 3). Make sure these are well marked to prevent accidents.

Canine distemper, a disease that affects domestic dogs, may be found in Maine river otter populations.

Adapted from: "Living with Wildlife in the Pacific Northwest" biological strategy is found in several animals, The average lifespan is 12 years; the oldest river otter recorded was 27, Fish, invertebrates, amphibians, small mammals. They are trained to chase fish into the fisherman’s nets, and are rewarded with part of the catch and a safe home. 41 State House Station River otters are opportunists, eating a wide variety of food items, but mostly fish. Animals lose heat much more rapidly in water than they do on land. Water tanks or small ponds can be fenced with 3 x 3-inch mesh wire. They are capable of submerging for three to four minutes at a time and can swim a quarter of a mile underwater. Written by: Scott E. Hygnstrom, et al. Birthing dens are lined with small sticks, shredded vegetation, and other available material. Further improvement in otter numbers allowed the river otter to be taken off the state threatened list in 2004.

Otters spend their time feeding and at what appears to be group play. A river otter’s metabolic rate is approximately 50% higher than a similarly sized land mammal’s. Exclusion and removal are the best methods to remedy a fish depredation problem with river otters. When they are around one month old the pups begin to explore their den, and at two months old they learn to swim. Retrieved from https://biologydictionary.net/river-otter/. 7).

River otters are able to hold their breath underwater for up to eight minutes. When traveling on land, river otters walk, run, or bound. Augusta, ME 04333-0041, Phone: (207) 287-8000 (For detailed information, see "Trapping Wildlife"). After two months, the pups learn to swim. River otters have an amazing physiological adaptation that may help their young to survive. Modifying the landscape by destroying beaver and muskrat lodges and burrows may discourage river otters from taking up residence on the property. In larger ponds, attach a group of cut conifer trees to a heavy anchor on the bottom of the pond. River otters are not likely to cause problems in natural environments. Fax: (207) 287-8094 or (207) 287-6395 They mark their territory by urinating, defecating, scratching, and rubbing their scent glands on rocks and trees.

It makes its home in a burrow near the water's edge, and can thrive in river, lake, swamp, or estuary ecosystems.

River otter sounds include chirps, growls, whines, and, when alarmed, an explosive hah! A double-wire electric fence, with wires set six and ten inches above ground will also deter river otters. They have long, narrow bodies, with long tails and short legs. During this time, wandering youngsters are seen far from water, traveling on land between lakes, ponds, and streams. River otters breed in late winter to early spring (January to April). Toll-free: 1.877.231.3552, Donor inquiries Heat conductivity in water is 27 times faster than in air of the same temperature.

Adult male river otters average four feet in length, including the tail, and weigh 20 to 28 pounds. Hi-tensile electric fences can also be effective. Also, it is illegal in most states to own an otter. The female carries the fertilized eggs for eight to twelve months before embryo development occurs (delayed implantation).

They can hold their breath underwater for some eight minutes. Essentially safe from predators while in water, river otters are more vulnerable when they travel on land. For more information about trapping river otters click HERE. They are fairly nearsighted, however, and they may not notice you if you stay still. Female adults are somewhat smaller than males. A broad, flattened head, prominent nose, long, bristly whiskers, small rounded ears, small eyes and thick neck are other characteristics used to identify river otters. All rights reserved. Otters seem to be used as a symbol for tricksters, similar to the use of foxes in other folklore. Written by: Ingles, L. G. Over the years, habitat loss, pollution and unregulated hunting severely reduced the population. Adults are able to defend themselves against most predators. Bobcats and coyotes are the main predator of river otters. Japanese culture tells a number of tales involving otters, many of them involving shape shifting. Otters have small, rounded ears, and long sensitive whiskers to help them feel the vibrations of their prey. If a river otter is causing property damage or is a public safety concern, it may be removed if an Illinois Department of Natural Resources district wildlife biologist issues a nuisance animal removal PERMIT. There are no repellents registered for use to deter river otters in Illinois. (Fig. Most species of otters are born in a den of some kind, either a tunnel or abandoned beaver dam. Remove vegetation around the fence to prevent the electric charge from becoming grounded. Female otters give birth to between one and six pups. They also have webbed feet, water repellent fur to keep them dry and warm, and nostrils and ears that close in the water. River otters are now a common species in Illinois and are found in every county. When bounding, the front and hind feet are brought toward each other causing the back to arch and the tail to be lifted off the ground. Before and after breeding, male otters usually lead solitary lives. Prior to our Otter Spotter community science effort beginning in 2012, river otters were not known to inhabit the SF Bay Area.

These skills include hunting and fighting. They will pull large fish from the water so that they can feed on land, and they often leave uneaten fish parts on the shoreline. All photos used are royalty-free, and credits are included in the Alt tag of each image. A family may range 10 to 25 miles in a season. Each otter’s scent is as unique as a fingerprint and can tell other otters information such as the identity, age, sex, and breeding condition of the otter that left it. River otters need healthy aquatic habits to survive. However, through conservation management and reintroduction efforts, populations have recuperated and are now considered stable. Current trapping season dates and regulations can be found in the Illinois Hunting and Trapping Digest. Seal all openings except the main entrance used by otters. River otters also den under boathouses, duck blinds, and other human structures up to half a mile away from water. This allows them to feed even in murky waters. In some locations, river otter numbers have increased to such levels that they are sometimes considered a nuisance. This biological strategy is found in several animals, where the embryo will not implant and develop until conditions are favorable. They use their long whiskers when swimming underwater to feel for the movement of their prey. They eat mostly aquatic organisms such as frogs, fish, turtles, insects, and some small mammals. This means that even in warm water, aquatic mammals lose heat quickly. Otters spend a lot of time exploring the spraint of others.

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